Sunday, December 29, 2019
Its a common theme of evolution that, during different geological epochs, different types of animals tend to occupy the same ecological niches. Today, the job of slow-witted, four-legged herbivore is filled by mammals like deer, sheep, horses, and cows; 75 to 65 million years ago, toward the end of the Cretaceous period, this niche was taken up by the hadrosaurs, or duck-billed dinosaurs. These small-brained, quadrupedal plant-eaters can (in many respects) can be considered the prehistoric equivalent of cattle--but not ducks, which lay on an entirely different evolutionary branch! Given their extensive fossil remains, its likely that more hadrosaurs existed during the latter stages of the Cretaceous period than any other type of dinosaur (including tyrannosaurs, ceratopsians, and raptors). These gentle creatures roamed the woodlands and plains of North America, Europe, and Asia, some in herds of hundreds or thousands of individuals, and some signaling to each other from afar by funneling blasts of air through the large, ornate crests on their heads, a characteristic hadrosaur feature (albeit more developed in some genera than in others). The Anatomy of Duck-Billed Dinosaurs Hadrosaurs (Greek for bulky lizards) were far from the sleekest, or most attractive, dinosaurs ever to walk the earth. These plant-eaters were characterized by their thick, squat torsos, massive, inflexible tails, and tough beaks and numerous cheek teeth (up to 1,000 in some species) designed for breaking down tough vegetation; some of them (the lambeosaurinae) had crests on top of their heads, while others (the hadrosaurinae) didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. Like cows and horses, hadrosaurs grazed on all fours, but even larger, multi-ton species may have been capable of running clumsily away on two feet to escape predators. Hadrosaurs were the largest of all the ornithischian, or bird-hipped, dinosaurs (the other major class of dinosaurs, saurischians, included giant, plant-eating sauropods and carnivorous theropods). Confusingly, hadrosaurs are technically classified as ornithopods, a larger family of ornithischian dinosaurs that included Iguanodon and Tenontosaurus; in fact, it can be hard to draw a firm line between the most advanced ornithopods and the earliest true hadrosaurs. Most duck-billed dinosaurs, including Anatotitan and Hypacrosaurus, weighed in the neighborhood of a few tons, but a few, like Shantungosaurus, attained truly enormous sizes--about 20 tons, or ten times as big as a modern elephant! Duck-Billed Dinosaur Family Life Duck-billed dinosaurs seem to have shared more in common with modern cows and horses than just their grazing habits (though its important to understand that grass had yet to evolve in the Cretaceous period; rather, hadrosaurs nibbled on low-lying plants). At least some hadrosaurs, such as Edmontosaurus, roamed the North American woodlands in large herds, doubtless as a form of defense against menacing raptors and tyrannosaurs. The gigantic, curved crests atop the noggins of hadrosaurs like Charonosaurus and Parasaurolophus were probably used to signal other herd members; studies have shown that these structures produced loud sounds when blasted with air. The crests may have served an additional function during mating season when males with bigger, more ornate headgear won the right to breed. Maiasaura, one of the few dinosaurs to be named after the female, rather than the male, of the genus, is an especially important duck-billed dinosaur, thanks to the discovery of an extensive North American nesting ground bearing the fossilized remains of adult and juvenile individuals, as well as numerous eggs arranged in bird-like clutches. Clearly, this good mother lizard kept close watch over its children even after they were hatched, so its at least possible that other duck-billed dinosaurs did the same (one other genus for which we possess definitive proof of child-rearing is Hypacrosaurus). Duck-Billed Dinosaur Evolution Hadrosaurs are one of the few families of dinosaurs to have lived entirely in one historical period, the middle to late Cretaceous. Other dinosaurs, like tyrannosaurs, flourished during the late Cretaceous as well, but theres evidence for distant ancestors dating as far back as the Jurassic period. As mentioned above, some early duck-billed dinosaurs evidenced a puzzling mixture of hadrosaur and iguanodont traits; one late genus, Telmatosaurus, maintained its Iguanodon-like profile even during the closing stages of the Cretaceous period, probably because this dinosaur was isolated on a European island and thus cut off from the mainstream of evolution. By the end of the Cretaceous period, hadrosaurs were the most populous dinosaurs on earth, an essential part of the food chain in that they consumedÃ the thick, overflowing vegetation of North America and Eurasia and were eaten in turn by carnivorous raptors and tyrannosaurs. If the dinosaurs as a whole hadnt been wiped out in the K/T Extinction Event, 65 million years ago, its conceivable that some hadrosaurs might have evolved to truly gigantic, Brachiosaurus-like sizes, bigger even than Shantungosaurus--but given the way, events turned out, well never know for sure.
Saturday, December 21, 2019
Introduction Urbanization, which is becoming a buzzword during the last few decades, is enlarging at a booming speed. It is predicted that 93 percents urban growth will occur to the year 2020, in the developing world (Elliot J.A, 1999). Generally speaking, more than half of the people around the world have been moved to cities, which led to a series of Ã¢â¬Å"mattersÃ¢â¬ connected with peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s life that changed in a dramatical way. In this period, sustainable development, another buzzword during the past few years, came into peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s view and gradually became the mainstream of society development. Its definition is to make the development continue in a long term, which means allowing appropriate economic growth and industrialization withoutÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Meanwhile, it also should popularize the green living ideas in public. Every year, a large amount of paper and disposable chopsticks are produced. Ã¢â¬Å"Since 2006, the annual consumption of chopsticks in T aiwan was around 4.8 billion pairs which equals to about 3 million of cut down bamboo plants (Shih, Y. F., Huang, C. C., Chen, P. W,2010).Ã¢â¬ Thus, by limiting the use of disposable chopsticks and advocating using both side of papers in government and companies, it can effectively reduce the use per day and as a result, the demand of timber will go down, which can slow down desertification. Significantly, desertification also cause soil erosion, which means soil surface is worn by wind and water. Desertification makes soil easy to erode by water or wind, as soil is exposed and soil structure is instable without forest. LaI R(2003) says that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Land area globally affected by erosion is 1094 million ha (Mha) by water erosion, of which 751 Mha is severely affected, and 549 Mha by wind erosion, of which 296 Mha is severely affected.Ã¢â¬ To control soil erosion, an obvious way is virescence, enlarging forest cover, which can protect the soil far from exposing to strong wind. Also, the roots of plants under ground play a role as a framework, as they are obstructions to soil movement,Show MoreRelatedHow Can Sustainable Development Save Urban Areas Essay822 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages How can sustainable development save urban areas INTRODUCTION: The population of people living in urban areas is increasing every year, especially in the developing countries.Urbanization is a very popular word to almost everyone now. However, many serious problems are caused at the same time with the development of urbanization. Let us take Europeans urban problems as example. The successful process of urban areas brings problems including shortage of housing ,long journey from residenceRead MoreEffects of Urbanization994 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUrbanization and Sustainable Development Tang 1 Iris Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬Ã£â¬â¬We all know the urbanization rate is an index to value the development of a country. However, though urbanization provides great convenience to some individuals, it also brings about negative effects. Problems such as pollution, overcrowded and the high unemployment appear during the process of urbanization and they are hard to cope with. In face of the sequence of problems, a new way of development ----sustainable development was put forwardRead MoreTo What Extent Can the Problems of Urbanization be Met by a Policy of Sustainable Development1331 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages With the development of urbanization, an increasing number of social problems have emerged. These problems will decelerate the urban development, however, there are many ways in which sustainable development can reduce the impact of these urbanization problems. Ã¢â¬Å"Sustainable development seeks to improve the quality of human life without undermining the quality of our natural environ mentÃ¢â¬ (Adams, W.M. 1999). Actually, sustainable development can partly solve the urbanization problems, for itRead MoreSustainable Development: The Solution to Urbanization1284 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSustainable Development: The Solution to Urbanization Introduction As the worlds population has grown exponentially in the modern era, issues of overcrowding in many of the worlds cities have created environmental, social, and economic problems for many citizens and municipal governments. While suburbanization occurred in the 1950s in the United States and certain other nations, with people moving out of cities themselves and into residential areas near these major cities, cities have generallyRead More Sustainable Development Policies Can Reduce Urbanization Problems1300 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesover the world are developing. This urbanization process is causing a number of problems and can be met by sustainable development policies. In the beginning, it is important to know what is the reason for urbanization. Most people move to the city because they want to get a better life. Another important term is a sustainable development. There are some definitions for sustainable development, but simply they say that sustainable development is a development which using resources now and preservingRead MoreThe Negative Impact Of Urbanization In Wildlife, Wildlife And Wildlife1162 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRolando Mascareno Professor Gary Pivo GEOG 256 16 November 2017 Urbanization and Wildlife Biodiversity, the abbreviation of biological diversity, is the set of all beings of the planet, the environment in which they live and the relationship they have with other species. It is composed of living organisms, as well as all ecosystems, and all the relationships they establish with each other and how living organisms can change from one place to another over time. As the human population and technologyRead MoreUrban Growth And Urbanization1628 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSustainable Cities One of the most extreme and rapidly growing anthropogenic pressures on the natural world is urbanization. The process of urbanization has been dynamic playing out over multiple scales of space and time. According to complexity theory, cities have been interpreted as complex, dynamics, self-organizing systems that are continually changing under pressures of certain factors due to internal processes and external factors (Galderisi). Urban areas have been growing twice as fast asRead MoreTo What Extent Does the Problem of Urbanization Can Be Met by Sustainable Development?1095 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTo what extent does the problem of urbanization can be met by sustainable development? For the past decades the trend of urbanization has rapidly increased, especially in developing countries. Urbanization may be defined as a process in which people from rural areas are migrating to the city. The sudden increase of the population in cities has brought significant problems to their inhabitants, the environment and resources. These problems are providing housing with basic facilities and publicRead MoreWhat It Takes Create A Sustainable Community?1236 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdiscussing what it takes create a sustainable community. The future goal for any city or state would entail sustainable living so that generations and generations of humans can live better lives and continue thrive in the unforeseeable future. In order to accomplish such a feat a community of people must address issues such as managing resources, urbanization and sub-urbanization, over-urbanization and the equal disbursement of resources. Over-urbanization, age distribution, pollution, andRead MoreImpact Of Global Warming On Human And Natural Systems1540 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesglobal impact. The rapid transition of rural to urban developments and the increasing move of human populations from rural to urban centers around the world show that there is a need to examine in-depth the relationship between urbanization and global warming, and how such a relationship can be made more sustainable. Truly assessing such a complicated problem requires an interdisciplinary approach on the social and ecological systems of human development. The importance of such an analysis is crucial as
Friday, December 13, 2019
?Role Set Analysis is a method that helps people to think through what is expected of them and they could clash and cause other issues. This method helps managers to check whether or not they are using time effectively. It compares existing procedures with current priorities. We will write a custom essay sample on Role Set Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now By using this method it can help to show what the end objective of the job being analyzed should be. There are many advantages of using the Role Set Analysis. It is easy to apply or update, it assists managers to ask certain questions of themselves about their priorities and objectives. It can also work with a group or team to see if the activities that are being done need to be changed and lastly, it can be used for a entire department or organization to make sure they have the correct resources in the correct places. This process uses a market research approach to a particular job. The data that is collected consists of the expectations of the main individuals or groups that communicates with the person. The main question that needs to be asked is Ã¢â¬Å"What do others expect from me? Ã¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"What should I be doing? Ã¢â¬ The first step is to accomplish is to identify what the main elements in the role set are. The next step is to combined the data and the pressures into a logical form. This is done by creating a flow chart to make it easier to review and understand. Once this is completed, the next step is to that the time and priorities that are allocated to each element in the role set is in line with what is actually needed. This can be done effectively by keeping a daily log of what their daily tasks are for a couple of days. This information can be compared with what is being reviewed for change. This information will help to ensure that the analysis that has been created is going to be effective. How to cite Role Set Analysis, Papers
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Describe about white collar crime. Answer: Human societies across the globe have been plagued by different manifestations of crimes. There was a time when crime was related to unprivileged lower class, and criminals were thought to be the outcome of income disparity and lack of educational basis. But time has changed, and on a gradual basis, the modes, motives, and origins of crimes and the nature of criminals have changed radically. The rise of white collar crimes have pointed to the fact that, often greed can instigate individuals from sound socio-economic backgrounds and educational spheres, to commit crimes that can render negative impacts on innumerable lives, and often on the majority of the populace of a nation. White collar criminals are the new face to crime disguised in sobriety. This disguise, accompanied by the lack of proper definition of the crime, differences in opinion, differences in levels of interpretation, difference in federal and state (and local) level functions, the nature of U.S. criminal justice syst em, and hindrances related to international laws, has often made it difficult for law enforcement to bring under trial a white-collar criminal in the right way. Coined in 1939 by Edwin Sutherland, the phrase white-collar crime, as defined by Sutherland (as cited in Cornell University Law School, n.d.) denotes crimes that have been committed by respectable individuals holding important professional and social positions. With the passage of time the definition of white-collar crime went on accumulating more aspects, and it has continued to entail some more elements. From todays perspective, if analyzed, then it can be seen that, white-collar crime encompasses different types of crimes which are nonviolent in nature, and which are committed for securing financial gains (Cornell University Law School, n.d.). It is explicitly visible in the definition of the crime that there are ambiguities, and there is no single criminology definition which has been unanimously accepted by criminologists and law enforcements in terms of white-collar crime. This has added to the problem of prosecuting a myriad of white-collar criminals in reality. It has often b een observed that most white-collar criminals use sophisticated means to hide their criminal activities through a series of complicated transactions which may apparently seem normal (Cornell University Law School, n.d.), and this adds to the problem of bringing such criminals under trial. Dilemma also lies in the fact that, the validity of white-collar crime as a form of crime has often been challenged by many scholars. It has been seen that as a form of crime, the definition and characterization of white-collar crimes have been subjected to severe criticism and controversy, and this has led to conceptual ambiguity (which in turn, has added to the problem in a greater degree) (Quinney, 1964). Also, it is noteworthy that, there is a lack of clarity from the conceptual perspective, and there is also ambiguities related to the diverse behaviors which constitute a white collar crime. But it is noteworthy that, These difficulties are to be expected since the search for a causative theory of white collar crime has been hampered by a number of problems which have also impeded the study of other forms of crime (Quinney, 1964). There are two principal problems related to the proper analysis of what white-collar crime is first, it is the problem related to the unit of analysis, and second, the problem related to the level of explanation (Quinney, 1964). The unit of analysis of white-collar crimes from the legal perspective is ingrained with ambiguities. It has been noted that the motives of several different white-collar crimes can be assorted to several different sociological and psychological sub-headings, and no single motive can be related to every crime. This is one primary problem related to white-collar crime. There is a need of categorizing different white-collar crimes under different typologies. But there is a problem related to this too. It is to be noted that, behavioral aspects can also come into play in this regard, adding to the problem even more. Moreover, in respect of the level of explanation, there is a confusion and ambiguity related to white collar crimes. Theories have differed in term s of their validity or invalidity, but this is not the only difference in terms of levels. As a matter of fact; theories have differed in the level of explanation. If some theorists have tried to interpret white collar crimes from the criminological perspective, then some other theorists have tried to explain the phenomenon purely from sociological perspective. Some other theorists have again interpreted this specific genre of crime from a complete psychological perspective. There lies the problem. The lack of unanimity and uniformity in the levels of explanation has added to the problems which already exist in terms of identifying a white collar crime and bringing the perpetrator under trial. The fact that, despite of successes in bringing white-collar criminals under trial, law enforcement and the criminal justice system as a whole has felt the difficulty of accomplishing success in every case, has been proved by the fact that, even today white collars crime are being committed, but it is difficult to nail down the perpetrators due to several different problems. In this regard it can be interesting to note that, While federal prosecutors have won many trials in their three-year post-Enron crackdown against corporate crime, the acquittal of former HealthSouth CEO Richard Scrushy shows how tough it can be to nail executives in white-collar fraud cases (Iwata, 2005). But it must be erroneous to put the blame of such incapability solely on the shoulder of the nature of the crime. The liberal outlook and principles of the American criminal justice system has also contributed to the enhancement of the degree of dilemmas in relation to identifying white collar crimes and bringi ng under trial white collar criminals. In many cases the liberal approach of the American criminal justice system has been seen in the form of the mes rea requirement, in the absence of vicarious criminal liability, in the principle of legality, in the presumption of innocence clause, in the requirement of proof beyond reasonable doubt, in the form of attorney-client privilege, and in the privilege against self-incrimination (Hasnas, 2005). And all these approaches have been employed by white collar criminals to their benefit. It can be interesting to learn how the criminal justice systems criminal intent clause has contributed to the evasion of white collar criminals from litigations. According to this clause, an executives actions and words that have been showed as criminal intent must have to be proved beyond reasonable doubt, and in case of white collar crimes, the standard of the clause (and its rigidity) extends manifold in comparison which other types of civil or criminal cas es (Iwata, 2005). This is a problem, and this problem is often considered as loophole of law by both the perpetrator and his/her attorney. The demarcation between federal and state powers in terms of applying criminal justice processes also has contributed to the problem of prosecuting a majority of white collar criminals. It is noteworthy that, One of the main realities of the American criminal justice system is that it is a county/state based system. Reflecting the nonfederal emphasis, the vast majority of incarcerated inmates are state and not federal prisoners (Vance Trani, 2008). The problem lies in the fact that, when a white collar crime is detected and the perpetrator is brought under trial on a state level, the lack of proper emphasis on federal principles on the part of the states, makes it possible for the perpetrator to escape the hands of law. Adding to the problem; the local jurisdictions have been left with almost no power to act on or highlight white-collar crime (Vance Trani, 2008). Moreover, Benson and Cullen (as cited in Vance Trani, 2008) have rightly pointed out that, as the common perception is that, white collar crime is not a serious problem, it often becomes difficult for the criminal justice system to prosecute the perpetrators. General public is often are unaware of the potential negative consequences of white collar crimes, and that is the reason why the common view is that, such crimes are not serious, or such crimes are harmless. As a matter of fact; white collar crime is not a victimless crime and it has the potential to ruin organizations, destroy family lives, and bring about immense economic hardships (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d.). Furthermore, there are international barriers. The laws of different nations have different clauses placed in reserve for defining and prosecuting a white collar criminal, and this often makes it difficult for the criminal justice system of one nation to bring under trial a white collar criminal who is a citizen of another nation (Snow, 2002). It is not that there is a void of international treaties and agreements in terms of dealing with white collar crimes; the problem lies in the course of implementing such treaties in actual situations. Theoretically such treaties and agreements sound perfect, but in practicality they are ingrained with certain difficulties. And in this regard it must be noted that, even when extradition and mutual legal assistance treaties are in force, and when their terms appear to provide for the foreign assistance needed in a particular case, their utilization can generate vexing legal, policy, and practical issues which at times frustrate, or at a minimum s low, the acquisition of the requested assistance (Snow, 2002). Hence, it can be seen that, along with several other problems, the problem ingrained in international relations, and in, their white-collar crime-related perspectives add to the problem of bringing under trial the white collar criminals. In conclusion, the rise of white collar crimes have pointed to the fact that, often greed can instigate individuals from sound socio-economic backgrounds and educational spheres, to commit crimes that can render negative impacts on innumerable lives, and often on the majority of the populace of a nation. White collar criminals are the new face to crime disguised in sobriety. This disguise, accompanied by the lack of proper definition of the crime, differences in opinion, differences in levels of interpretation, difference in federal and state (and local) level functions, the nature of U.S. criminal justice system, and hindrances related to international laws, has often made it difficult for law enforcement to bring under trial a white-collar criminal in the right way. Moreover, it has been seen that, along with several other problems, the problem ingrained in international relations, and in, their white-collar crime-related perspectives add to the problem of bringing under trial the white collar criminals. References Cornell University Law School (n.d.). White-collar Crime. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/white-collar_crime Hasnas, J. (2005). ETHICS AND THE PROBLEM OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from https://www.wcl.american.edu/journal/lawrev/54/hasnas.pdf Iwata, E. (2005). White-collar crime cases prove difficult to prosecute. USA TODAY. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from https://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/industries/health/2005-06-28-white-collar-usat_x.htm Quinney, E.R. (1964). The Study of White Collar Crime: Toward A Reorientation in Theory and Research. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology Police Science. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5230context=jclc Snow, T.G. (2002). The Investigation and Prosecution of White-Collar Crime: International Challenges and the Legal Tools Available to Address Them. William Mary Bill of Rights Journal, 11(1), 209-244. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from https://scholarship.law.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1317context=wmborj The Federal Bureau of Investigation (n.d.). White-Collar Crime. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/white_collar Vance, N. Trani, B. (2008). Situational Prevention and the Reduction of White Collar Crime. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from https://sgpp.arizona.edu/sites/sgpp.arizona.edu/files/Situational%20Prevention%20and%20the%20Reduction%20of%20White%20Collar%20Crime%20by%20Dr.%20Neil%20R.%20Vance_1.pdf