Sunday, December 29, 2019

Hadrosaurs The Duck-Billed Dinosaurs

Its a common theme of evolution that, during different geological epochs, different types of animals tend to occupy the same ecological niches. Today, the job of slow-witted, four-legged herbivore is filled by mammals like deer, sheep, horses, and cows; 75 to 65 million years ago, toward the end of the Cretaceous period, this niche was taken up by the hadrosaurs, or duck-billed dinosaurs. These small-brained, quadrupedal plant-eaters can (in many respects) can be considered the prehistoric equivalent of cattle--but not ducks, which lay on an entirely different evolutionary branch! Given their extensive fossil remains, its likely that more hadrosaurs existed during the latter stages of the Cretaceous period than any other type of dinosaur (including tyrannosaurs, ceratopsians, and raptors). These gentle creatures roamed the woodlands and plains of North America, Europe, and Asia, some in herds of hundreds or thousands of individuals, and some signaling to each other from afar by funneling blasts of air through the large, ornate crests on their heads, a characteristic hadrosaur feature (albeit more developed in some genera than in others). The Anatomy of Duck-Billed Dinosaurs Hadrosaurs (Greek for bulky lizards) were far from the sleekest, or most attractive, dinosaurs ever to walk the earth. These plant-eaters were characterized by their thick, squat torsos, massive, inflexible tails, and tough beaks and numerous cheek teeth (up to 1,000 in some species) designed for breaking down tough vegetation; some of them (the lambeosaurinae) had crests on top of their heads, while others (the hadrosaurinae) didn’t. Like cows and horses, hadrosaurs grazed on all fours, but even larger, multi-ton species may have been capable of running clumsily away on two feet to escape predators. Hadrosaurs were the largest of all the ornithischian, or bird-hipped, dinosaurs (the other major class of dinosaurs, saurischians, included giant, plant-eating sauropods and carnivorous theropods). Confusingly, hadrosaurs are technically classified as ornithopods, a larger family of ornithischian dinosaurs that included Iguanodon and Tenontosaurus; in fact, it can be hard to draw a firm line between the most advanced ornithopods and the earliest true hadrosaurs. Most duck-billed dinosaurs, including Anatotitan and Hypacrosaurus, weighed in the neighborhood of a few tons, but a few, like Shantungosaurus, attained truly enormous sizes--about 20 tons, or ten times as big as a modern elephant! Duck-Billed Dinosaur Family Life Duck-billed dinosaurs seem to have shared more in common with modern cows and horses than just their grazing habits (though its important to understand that grass had yet to evolve in the Cretaceous period; rather, hadrosaurs nibbled on low-lying plants). At least some hadrosaurs, such as Edmontosaurus, roamed the North American woodlands in large herds, doubtless as a form of defense against menacing raptors and tyrannosaurs. The gigantic, curved crests atop the noggins of hadrosaurs like Charonosaurus and Parasaurolophus were probably used to signal other herd members; studies have shown that these structures produced loud sounds when blasted with air. The crests may have served an additional function during mating season when males with bigger, more ornate headgear won the right to breed. Maiasaura, one of the few dinosaurs to be named after the female, rather than the male, of the genus, is an especially important duck-billed dinosaur, thanks to the discovery of an extensive North American nesting ground bearing the fossilized remains of adult and juvenile individuals, as well as numerous eggs arranged in bird-like clutches. Clearly, this good mother lizard kept close watch over its children even after they were hatched, so its at least possible that other duck-billed dinosaurs did the same (one other genus for which we possess definitive proof of child-rearing is Hypacrosaurus). Duck-Billed Dinosaur Evolution Hadrosaurs are one of the few families of dinosaurs to have lived entirely in one historical period, the middle to late Cretaceous. Other dinosaurs, like tyrannosaurs, flourished during the late Cretaceous as well, but theres evidence for distant ancestors dating as far back as the Jurassic period. As mentioned above, some early duck-billed dinosaurs evidenced a puzzling mixture of hadrosaur and iguanodont traits; one late genus, Telmatosaurus, maintained its Iguanodon-like profile even during the closing stages of the Cretaceous period, probably because this dinosaur was isolated on a European island and thus cut off from the mainstream of evolution. By the end of the Cretaceous period, hadrosaurs were the most populous dinosaurs on earth, an essential part of the food chain in that they consumed  the thick, overflowing vegetation of North America and Eurasia and were eaten in turn by carnivorous raptors and tyrannosaurs. If the dinosaurs as a whole hadnt been wiped out in the K/T Extinction Event, 65 million years ago, its conceivable that some hadrosaurs might have evolved to truly gigantic, Brachiosaurus-like sizes, bigger even than Shantungosaurus--but given the way, events turned out, well never know for sure.

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Sustainable development, a new way of urbanization

Introduction Urbanization, which is becoming a buzzword during the last few decades, is enlarging at a booming speed. It is predicted that 93 percents urban growth will occur to the year 2020, in the developing world (Elliot J.A, 1999). Generally speaking, more than half of the people around the world have been moved to cities, which led to a series of â€Å"matters† connected with people’s life that changed in a dramatical way. In this period, sustainable development, another buzzword during the past few years, came into people’s view and gradually became the mainstream of society development. Its definition is to make the development continue in a long term, which means allowing appropriate economic growth and industrialization without†¦show more content†¦Meanwhile, it also should popularize the green living ideas in public. Every year, a large amount of paper and disposable chopsticks are produced. â€Å"Since 2006, the annual consumption of chopsticks in T aiwan was around 4.8 billion pairs which equals to about 3 million of cut down bamboo plants (Shih, Y. F., Huang, C. C., Chen, P. W,2010).† Thus, by limiting the use of disposable chopsticks and advocating using both side of papers in government and companies, it can effectively reduce the use per day and as a result, the demand of timber will go down, which can slow down desertification. Significantly, desertification also cause soil erosion, which means soil surface is worn by wind and water. Desertification makes soil easy to erode by water or wind, as soil is exposed and soil structure is instable without forest. LaI R(2003) says that â€Å"â€Å"Land area globally affected by erosion is 1094 million ha (Mha) by water erosion, of which 751 Mha is severely affected, and 549 Mha by wind erosion, of which 296 Mha is severely affected.† To control soil erosion, an obvious way is virescence, enlarging forest cover, which can protect the soil far from exposing to strong wind. Also, the roots of plants under ground play a role as a framework, as they are obstructions to soil movement,Show MoreRelatedHow Can Sustainable Development Save Urban Areas Essay822 Words   |  4 Pages How can sustainable development save urban areas INTRODUCTION: The population of people living in urban areas is increasing every year, especially in the developing countries.Urbanization is a very popular word to almost everyone now. However, many serious problems are caused at the same time with the development of urbanization. Let us take Europeans urban problems as example. The successful process of urban areas brings problems including shortage of housing ,long journey from residenceRead MoreEffects of Urbanization994 Words   |  4 PagesUrbanization and Sustainable Development Tang 1 Iris    We all know the urbanization rate is an index to value the development of a country. However, though urbanization provides great convenience to some individuals, it also brings about negative effects. Problems such as pollution, overcrowded and the high unemployment appear during the process of urbanization and they are hard to cope with. In face of the sequence of problems, a new way of development ----sustainable development was put forwardRead MoreTo What Extent Can the Problems of Urbanization be Met by a Policy of Sustainable Development1331 Words   |  6 Pages With the development of urbanization, an increasing number of social problems have emerged. These problems will decelerate the urban development, however, there are many ways in which sustainable development can reduce the impact of these urbanization problems. â€Å"Sustainable development seeks to improve the quality of human life without undermining the quality of our natural environ ment† (Adams, W.M. 1999). Actually, sustainable development can partly solve the urbanization problems, for itRead MoreSustainable Development: The Solution to Urbanization1284 Words   |  5 PagesSustainable Development: The Solution to Urbanization Introduction As the worlds population has grown exponentially in the modern era, issues of overcrowding in many of the worlds cities have created environmental, social, and economic problems for many citizens and municipal governments. While suburbanization occurred in the 1950s in the United States and certain other nations, with people moving out of cities themselves and into residential areas near these major cities, cities have generallyRead More Sustainable Development Policies Can Reduce Urbanization Problems1300 Words   |  6 Pagesover the world are developing. This urbanization process is causing a number of problems and can be met by sustainable development policies. In the beginning, it is important to know what is the reason for urbanization. Most people move to the city because they want to get a better life. Another important term is a sustainable development. There are some definitions for sustainable development, but simply they say that sustainable development is a development which using resources now and preservingRead MoreThe Negative Impact Of Urbanization In Wildlife, Wildlife And Wildlife1162 Words   |  5 PagesRolando Mascareno Professor Gary Pivo GEOG 256 16 November 2017 Urbanization and Wildlife Biodiversity, the abbreviation of biological diversity, is the set of all beings of the planet, the environment in which they live and the relationship they have with other species. It is composed of living organisms, as well as all ecosystems, and all the relationships they establish with each other and how living organisms can change from one place to another over time. As the human population and technologyRead MoreUrban Growth And Urbanization1628 Words   |  7 PagesSustainable Cities One of the most extreme and rapidly growing anthropogenic pressures on the natural world is urbanization. The process of urbanization has been dynamic playing out over multiple scales of space and time. According to complexity theory, cities have been interpreted as complex, dynamics, self-organizing systems that are continually changing under pressures of certain factors due to internal processes and external factors (Galderisi). Urban areas have been growing twice as fast asRead MoreTo What Extent Does the Problem of Urbanization Can Be Met by Sustainable Development?1095 Words   |  5 PagesTo what extent does the problem of urbanization can be met by sustainable development? For the past decades the trend of urbanization has rapidly increased, especially in developing countries. Urbanization may be defined as a process in which people from rural areas are migrating to the city. The sudden increase of the population in cities has brought significant problems to their inhabitants, the environment and resources. These problems are providing housing with basic facilities and publicRead MoreWhat It Takes Create A Sustainable Community?1236 Words   |  5 Pagesdiscussing what it takes create a sustainable community. The future goal for any city or state would entail sustainable living so that generations and generations of humans can live better lives and continue thrive in the unforeseeable future. In order to accomplish such a feat a community of people must address issues such as managing resources, urbanization and sub-urbanization, over-urbanization and the equal disbursement of resources. Over-urbanization, age distribution, pollution, andRead MoreImpact Of Global Warming On Human And Natural Systems1540 Words   |  7 Pagesglobal impact. The rapid transition of rural to urban developments and the increasing move of human populations from rural to urban centers around the world show that there is a need to examine in-depth the relationship between urbanization and global warming, and how such a relationship can be made more sustainable. Truly assessing such a complicated problem requires an interdisciplinary approach on the social and ecological systems of human development. The importance of such an analysis is crucial as

Friday, December 13, 2019

Role Set Analysis Free Essays

?Role Set Analysis is a method that helps people to think through what is expected of them and they could clash and cause other issues. This method helps managers to check whether or not they are using time effectively. It compares existing procedures with current priorities. We will write a custom essay sample on Role Set Analysis or any similar topic only for you Order Now By using this method it can help to show what the end objective of the job being analyzed should be. There are many advantages of using the Role Set Analysis. It is easy to apply or update, it assists managers to ask certain questions of themselves about their priorities and objectives. It can also work with a group or team to see if the activities that are being done need to be changed and lastly, it can be used for a entire department or organization to make sure they have the correct resources in the correct places. This process uses a market research approach to a particular job. The data that is collected consists of the expectations of the main individuals or groups that communicates with the person. The main question that needs to be asked is â€Å"What do others expect from me? † instead of â€Å"What should I be doing? † The first step is to accomplish is to identify what the main elements in the role set are. The next step is to combined the data and the pressures into a logical form. This is done by creating a flow chart to make it easier to review and understand. Once this is completed, the next step is to that the time and priorities that are allocated to each element in the role set is in line with what is actually needed. This can be done effectively by keeping a daily log of what their daily tasks are for a couple of days. This information can be compared with what is being reviewed for change. This information will help to ensure that the analysis that has been created is going to be effective. How to cite Role Set Analysis, Papers

Thursday, December 5, 2019

White Collar Crime An Analysis

Question: Describe about white collar crime. Answer: Human societies across the globe have been plagued by different manifestations of crimes. There was a time when crime was related to unprivileged lower class, and criminals were thought to be the outcome of income disparity and lack of educational basis. But time has changed, and on a gradual basis, the modes, motives, and origins of crimes and the nature of criminals have changed radically. The rise of white collar crimes have pointed to the fact that, often greed can instigate individuals from sound socio-economic backgrounds and educational spheres, to commit crimes that can render negative impacts on innumerable lives, and often on the majority of the populace of a nation. White collar criminals are the new face to crime disguised in sobriety. This disguise, accompanied by the lack of proper definition of the crime, differences in opinion, differences in levels of interpretation, difference in federal and state (and local) level functions, the nature of U.S. criminal justice syst em, and hindrances related to international laws, has often made it difficult for law enforcement to bring under trial a white-collar criminal in the right way. Coined in 1939 by Edwin Sutherland, the phrase white-collar crime, as defined by Sutherland (as cited in Cornell University Law School, n.d.) denotes crimes that have been committed by respectable individuals holding important professional and social positions. With the passage of time the definition of white-collar crime went on accumulating more aspects, and it has continued to entail some more elements. From todays perspective, if analyzed, then it can be seen that, white-collar crime encompasses different types of crimes which are nonviolent in nature, and which are committed for securing financial gains (Cornell University Law School, n.d.). It is explicitly visible in the definition of the crime that there are ambiguities, and there is no single criminology definition which has been unanimously accepted by criminologists and law enforcements in terms of white-collar crime. This has added to the problem of prosecuting a myriad of white-collar criminals in reality. It has often b een observed that most white-collar criminals use sophisticated means to hide their criminal activities through a series of complicated transactions which may apparently seem normal (Cornell University Law School, n.d.), and this adds to the problem of bringing such criminals under trial. Dilemma also lies in the fact that, the validity of white-collar crime as a form of crime has often been challenged by many scholars. It has been seen that as a form of crime, the definition and characterization of white-collar crimes have been subjected to severe criticism and controversy, and this has led to conceptual ambiguity (which in turn, has added to the problem in a greater degree) (Quinney, 1964). Also, it is noteworthy that, there is a lack of clarity from the conceptual perspective, and there is also ambiguities related to the diverse behaviors which constitute a white collar crime. But it is noteworthy that, These difficulties are to be expected since the search for a causative theory of white collar crime has been hampered by a number of problems which have also impeded the study of other forms of crime (Quinney, 1964). There are two principal problems related to the proper analysis of what white-collar crime is first, it is the problem related to the unit of analysis, and second, the problem related to the level of explanation (Quinney, 1964). The unit of analysis of white-collar crimes from the legal perspective is ingrained with ambiguities. It has been noted that the motives of several different white-collar crimes can be assorted to several different sociological and psychological sub-headings, and no single motive can be related to every crime. This is one primary problem related to white-collar crime. There is a need of categorizing different white-collar crimes under different typologies. But there is a problem related to this too. It is to be noted that, behavioral aspects can also come into play in this regard, adding to the problem even more. Moreover, in respect of the level of explanation, there is a confusion and ambiguity related to white collar crimes. Theories have differed in term s of their validity or invalidity, but this is not the only difference in terms of levels. As a matter of fact; theories have differed in the level of explanation. If some theorists have tried to interpret white collar crimes from the criminological perspective, then some other theorists have tried to explain the phenomenon purely from sociological perspective. Some other theorists have again interpreted this specific genre of crime from a complete psychological perspective. There lies the problem. The lack of unanimity and uniformity in the levels of explanation has added to the problems which already exist in terms of identifying a white collar crime and bringing the perpetrator under trial. The fact that, despite of successes in bringing white-collar criminals under trial, law enforcement and the criminal justice system as a whole has felt the difficulty of accomplishing success in every case, has been proved by the fact that, even today white collars crime are being committed, but it is difficult to nail down the perpetrators due to several different problems. In this regard it can be interesting to note that, While federal prosecutors have won many trials in their three-year post-Enron crackdown against corporate crime, the acquittal of former HealthSouth CEO Richard Scrushy shows how tough it can be to nail executives in white-collar fraud cases (Iwata, 2005). But it must be erroneous to put the blame of such incapability solely on the shoulder of the nature of the crime. The liberal outlook and principles of the American criminal justice system has also contributed to the enhancement of the degree of dilemmas in relation to identifying white collar crimes and bringi ng under trial white collar criminals. In many cases the liberal approach of the American criminal justice system has been seen in the form of the mes rea requirement, in the absence of vicarious criminal liability, in the principle of legality, in the presumption of innocence clause, in the requirement of proof beyond reasonable doubt, in the form of attorney-client privilege, and in the privilege against self-incrimination (Hasnas, 2005). And all these approaches have been employed by white collar criminals to their benefit. It can be interesting to learn how the criminal justice systems criminal intent clause has contributed to the evasion of white collar criminals from litigations. According to this clause, an executives actions and words that have been showed as criminal intent must have to be proved beyond reasonable doubt, and in case of white collar crimes, the standard of the clause (and its rigidity) extends manifold in comparison which other types of civil or criminal cas es (Iwata, 2005). This is a problem, and this problem is often considered as loophole of law by both the perpetrator and his/her attorney. The demarcation between federal and state powers in terms of applying criminal justice processes also has contributed to the problem of prosecuting a majority of white collar criminals. It is noteworthy that, One of the main realities of the American criminal justice system is that it is a county/state based system. Reflecting the nonfederal emphasis, the vast majority of incarcerated inmates are state and not federal prisoners (Vance Trani, 2008). The problem lies in the fact that, when a white collar crime is detected and the perpetrator is brought under trial on a state level, the lack of proper emphasis on federal principles on the part of the states, makes it possible for the perpetrator to escape the hands of law. Adding to the problem; the local jurisdictions have been left with almost no power to act on or highlight white-collar crime (Vance Trani, 2008). Moreover, Benson and Cullen (as cited in Vance Trani, 2008) have rightly pointed out that, as the common perception is that, white collar crime is not a serious problem, it often becomes difficult for the criminal justice system to prosecute the perpetrators. General public is often are unaware of the potential negative consequences of white collar crimes, and that is the reason why the common view is that, such crimes are not serious, or such crimes are harmless. As a matter of fact; white collar crime is not a victimless crime and it has the potential to ruin organizations, destroy family lives, and bring about immense economic hardships (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, n.d.). Furthermore, there are international barriers. The laws of different nations have different clauses placed in reserve for defining and prosecuting a white collar criminal, and this often makes it difficult for the criminal justice system of one nation to bring under trial a white collar criminal who is a citizen of another nation (Snow, 2002). It is not that there is a void of international treaties and agreements in terms of dealing with white collar crimes; the problem lies in the course of implementing such treaties in actual situations. Theoretically such treaties and agreements sound perfect, but in practicality they are ingrained with certain difficulties. And in this regard it must be noted that, even when extradition and mutual legal assistance treaties are in force, and when their terms appear to provide for the foreign assistance needed in a particular case, their utilization can generate vexing legal, policy, and practical issues which at times frustrate, or at a minimum s low, the acquisition of the requested assistance (Snow, 2002). Hence, it can be seen that, along with several other problems, the problem ingrained in international relations, and in, their white-collar crime-related perspectives add to the problem of bringing under trial the white collar criminals. In conclusion, the rise of white collar crimes have pointed to the fact that, often greed can instigate individuals from sound socio-economic backgrounds and educational spheres, to commit crimes that can render negative impacts on innumerable lives, and often on the majority of the populace of a nation. White collar criminals are the new face to crime disguised in sobriety. This disguise, accompanied by the lack of proper definition of the crime, differences in opinion, differences in levels of interpretation, difference in federal and state (and local) level functions, the nature of U.S. criminal justice system, and hindrances related to international laws, has often made it difficult for law enforcement to bring under trial a white-collar criminal in the right way. Moreover, it has been seen that, along with several other problems, the problem ingrained in international relations, and in, their white-collar crime-related perspectives add to the problem of bringing under trial the white collar criminals. References Cornell University Law School (n.d.). White-collar Crime. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from Hasnas, J. (2005). ETHICS AND THE PROBLEM OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from Iwata, E. (2005). White-collar crime cases prove difficult to prosecute. USA TODAY. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from Quinney, E.R. (1964). The Study of White Collar Crime: Toward A Reorientation in Theory and Research. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology Police Science. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from Snow, T.G. (2002). The Investigation and Prosecution of White-Collar Crime: International Challenges and the Legal Tools Available to Address Them. William Mary Bill of Rights Journal, 11(1), 209-244. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from The Federal Bureau of Investigation (n.d.). White-Collar Crime. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from Vance, N. Trani, B. (2008). Situational Prevention and the Reduction of White Collar Crime. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Free Essays on Israeli

The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Before I stepped into a class about Middle Eastern history and began reading and studying Professor William L. Cleveland’s book A History of the Modern Middle East, I had some common misconceptions about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Like most people, I gathered my information from reading newspapers and watching the news on television. Through reading and studying, I began to develop an informative opinion by learning the facts of the conflict rather than various opinions from biased sources as relates to both parties. I began to reflect on the various incidents that encompassed the conflict itself and develop an intelligent and educated opinion. In 1948, the Arab and Jewish communities were struggling for control over territory after the British had left Haifa. The Jewish community emerged the victor in this struggle. After this occurrence, Ben-Gurion proclaimed that Israel was an independent state. The new state was immediately recognized by the United States and the Soviet Union. I believe that this occurrence was the beginning of the animosity as well as the conflict between Israel and Palestine. In winning the struggle between the two communities, Israel had managed to gain it’s territory and became an independent state. By the U.S. recognizing Israel as an independent state, this also led to Arab animosity towards the U.S. The root of the problem is that Israel believes that it is their birthright to have the territory that they won in the war and the Palestinians believe that they were forced out of their homes and land and became refugees unjustly. I believe both sides have valid points. In the case of Israel, I disagree with the notion of the land is theirs because of birthright. Nevertheless, they got a lot of help from European nations, mainly from Britain in occupying what is now Israel. In the case of the Palestinians, lack of Arab unity, leadership, and refusal to accept t... Free Essays on Israeli Free Essays on Israeli The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Before I stepped into a class about Middle Eastern history and began reading and studying Professor William L. Cleveland’s book A History of the Modern Middle East, I had some common misconceptions about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Like most people, I gathered my information from reading newspapers and watching the news on television. Through reading and studying, I began to develop an informative opinion by learning the facts of the conflict rather than various opinions from biased sources as relates to both parties. I began to reflect on the various incidents that encompassed the conflict itself and develop an intelligent and educated opinion. In 1948, the Arab and Jewish communities were struggling for control over territory after the British had left Haifa. The Jewish community emerged the victor in this struggle. After this occurrence, Ben-Gurion proclaimed that Israel was an independent state. The new state was immediately recognized by the United States and the Soviet Union. I believe that this occurrence was the beginning of the animosity as well as the conflict between Israel and Palestine. In winning the struggle between the two communities, Israel had managed to gain it’s territory and became an independent state. By the U.S. recognizing Israel as an independent state, this also led to Arab animosity towards the U.S. The root of the problem is that Israel believes that it is their birthright to have the territory that they won in the war and the Palestinians believe that they were forced out of their homes and land and became refugees unjustly. I believe both sides have valid points. In the case of Israel, I disagree with the notion of the land is theirs because of birthright. Nevertheless, they got a lot of help from European nations, mainly from Britain in occupying what is now Israel. In the case of the Palestinians, lack of Arab unity, leadership, and refusal to accept t...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

How will China look to sustain economic growth in the future Essay

How will China look to sustain economic growth in the future - Essay Example (Hu and Khan, 1997: Harder, 2010, p.1) The nation has been able to sustain the growth inspite of minor fluctuations. The economy had been experiencing a 6 percent annual growth before it underwent an economic reform in 1978, which changed to 9 percent post reform. It witnessed a above 13 percent per capita growth in its peak years- a nearly quadrupled figure. The country experienced a growth in its capital accumulation in the form of ‘stocks of capital assets’ and the setting up of new factories, developing machinery, and logistics systems which was an important factor in the growth of the economy. The growth in the number of Chinese workers also resulted in a sharp and sustained increase in the productivity, which was also a major factor for the economic growth of the country. The key driving force of the growth has mainly been the unremitting expansion in the production of the economy, which accounted for more than 42 per cent during the period 1979-94. This also broke the traditional myth that an economy can only grow with the growth in its capital accumulation. ... It has been argued that productivity driven growth are more sustainable and the ‘market oriented reform’ taken up by the country had resulted in creating the ‘productivity boom’. The reform brought in the introduction of ‘profit incentives to rural collective enterprises, family farms, small private business and foreign investors and traders’, which stimulated the efficiency of the economy. Many enterprises were also exempted from the state authority intervention, which resulted in an increase in the share of the collective enterprises from 42 percent to 50 percent and the share of the private business and joint ventures from 2 percent to 10 percent, while the output of the state owned enterprises declined from 56 percent to 40 percent. The profit motive of the producers increased the investment in their business in order to improve its performance. Reforms in the economic policy had also extended property rights in the countryside as the rural people started of non-agricultural business. The post reform period was marked with more competent use of labor and more fruitful farms as a result of de-collectivization and high priced farming products. This resulted in fast growth of village enterprises driving many people into ‘higher value added manufacturing sector’ from the ‘traditional agricultural sector’. The reform granted the enterprise managers with greater freedom as they were free to place their own production goals, sell the products in the private market with competitive prices, and give bonus to the employee who works better and fire the one whose performance is not good. The reform also entitled them to retain some of the firm’s earnings for further

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

John Kerry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

John Kerry - Essay Example A decorated navy veteran John is serving his fourth term as a Senator, after winning in 2002. During his two decades of service, he has successfully taken up a range is issues like; Safeguarding the interests of the small business and for providing such businesses a level playing field in view of the cut-throat competition in global economy. His being the chairman of the Senate Small Business Committee came in handy for this matter. Though Sen. John Kerry has been a known figure in national politics since 1971, but it was during the Presidential elections campaign that we could see a multifaceted personality during all of TV shows, debates and election rallies. He started off as a lone ranger, in contrast to the huge hype created around President Bush, but gradually succeeded in picking up the pace solely on the basis of his uncanny ability to address the issues in right perspective. His grasp on foreign affairs has been the key in giving his popularity graph a big boost. Though George W. Bush appears to have an edge as far as mesmerizing the audience is concerned but John Kerry makes his mark amongst the intellectuals. As the campaign progressed, the general public too started taking notice of his able leadership and he was able to put up a tough fight in front of George Bush. In fact John earned the reputation of blooming at the opportune moment when despite being an early favorite for the 2004 Democratic pre sidential nomination, Howard Dean appeared to leave him behind, but Kerry quickly emerged as the frontrunner once the voting began, securing enough delegates for the nomination. Nurturing his constituency: In the national politics Massachusetts has remained overwhelmingly Democratic (Almanac, 2006). The state voted for John Kerry 62%-37% in 2004. George W. Bush could top 40% only in Plymouth County and Cape Cod, and the northeast Boston suburbs in Essex County. Politics in Massachusetts for years has been a kind of culture war between Yankee Republicans and Irish Democrats. With a population of 6,349,097 (Almanac, 2006) and rural-urban composition of 8.6%-91.4%, the state today boasts of almost 100% employment figures. That's indeed a feather in the cap of the officials representing the state. Prosperity of the people in the state is further evident by the rising income levels of the people with majority of the job holders (i.e. 67%) being white collar, while 18.7% hold blue collar and 14.3% hold gray collar jobs. The composition of state is; Ethnic

Monday, November 18, 2019

East and Central European countries Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

East and Central European countries - Essay Example uted leaders of technological change are the countries of Western Europe, the United States and Japan, with a high technological culture and monopolize major breakthrough technology of recent decades, in fact already entered the phase of post-industrial development, successfully addressing the socio-economic objectives. In pursuit of the leaders the countries of South-East Asia and China stepped up on the way to build the innovation economy. (Lavigne, 1992) In recent years, many countries of Central East Europe and CIS are actively moving towards the socio-economic modernization and striving for adapting to the rapidly growing processes of globalization, also announced an innovative course as a priority in their development. However, none of the post-socialist countries has been able to integrate in terms of technologically advanced countries, being mainly on the periphery of the global economy. The basis of the structural change and technological upgrading of Central/East European countries is the policy of their governments, aimed at creating a favorable investment climate, ensuring a serious income of foreign investment. In general foreign companies by the end of 2003, invested in the economies of Central/East Europe 162 billion dollars. About the number of foreign investment in national economy of these countries shows the percentage of volume of accumulated investments in GDP, which amounted for Czech Republic 52%, Hungary - 44, Slovakia - 40%. (Inglot, 2008) Among the major foreign investment companies operating in the market in these countries, there are such well-known multinationals as Opel, Volkswagen, PSA, Audi, Toyota, Daewoo, General Motors, Nokia, Philips, Bosh, IBM, Hewlett Packard, General Electric, Electronics, Ford, Suzuki, Sony, Sanyo, Electrolux and others in the field of view of their interests are mainly in the automobile industry, electronics, manufacturing of computer and telecommunications equipment, pharmaceuticals and chemical

Friday, November 15, 2019

Theoretical Perspectives Of Hrm At Ryanair Management Essay

Theoretical Perspectives Of Hrm At Ryanair Management Essay RYANAIR is Europes largest low-cost airline. Operating its low-fare, no-frills formula, has over 1700 employees and a on the increase fleet of around 50 Boeing 737 jet to provide services over 70 routes to 13 countries all the way through Europe. Operating from its Dublin center of operations, it carries around 12 million passengers every year. Its planes are quite new, and have a short turnaround time between flights of 25 minutes. RYANAIR now requires online cheek-in; otherwise it will charge the customer an additional $40 for printing the online tickets reservation at the airport. It makes most of its money from the items sold in flight such as food, drinks, etc. Theoretical perspectives of HRM We will then present a verity of theoretical perspectives that may make available the indispensable foundation for understanding both the planned and non-strategic determinates of HR practices and thus make possible researchers to get an intentional approach to HRM. Three key theoretical perspectives of HRM Resource based view of the solid Cybernetic agency / transaction costs Behavioral approach Resource based view of the solid The most recent way in into the abstract discussions of planned human resource management comes from the governmental financial side and strategic management copy and has been coin the resource based view of the solid. Since the birth of line of attack as a documented area in the field of management work organization strategists cover relied first and foremost on a single outline to structure their research. The resource-based view of ready for action advantage is firm focused whereas the traditional strategic analysis paradigm has had an industry environment focus. Firm resource heterogeneity refers to the resources of a firm and how different these wealth are across firm. In the customary strategy model firm resources are viewed as all the same across firm in the industry. Firm resource calm refers to the inability of competing firm to obtain assets from other firms. In the traditional strategy model resources are well thought-out mobile in that firms could buy or create resources held by a rival firm. In order for a firms resource to make available sustained competitive advantages for example, the resource must add positive value to the firm, and unique or rare in the midst of currant. Cybernetic agency / transaction costs This variable explains why companies use to control systems such as performance evaluation and reward system. Strategies might not be pursued if performance evaluation and reward system were not in place. They added the perspectives of population ecology, strategic reference points, human capital theory, and the Foucaldian perspective. Digitalization transmogrifies simple analog agent into very composite beings with serious potential for sovereign motion, site, doings, and kind beyond those analogies limited by run of the mill material culture. Behavioral approach The RYANIAR behavioral approach to act management attempts to term the behavior an employee must show signs of to be defective in the job. The various techniques define those behaviors, and then have need of managers to judge the size to which an employee exhibit them and emphasizes on employee behavior as the mediator between strategy and clerical piece. Employee can carry the companys goals or correct performance deficiency. The person in charge distinguishes the basic essentials job and makeup. Function refers to the goals of anticipated activities and makeup to the self of the organization and of the employees or the human resources. The RYANIAR behavior moves toward is directed toward explaining behavioral patterns in poles apart ecological site. It concentrates on culture as the single most important factors. Task-2 Empowerment includes the following, or similar, capabilities:- These ability to make decisions about personal/collective conditions These ability to access information and assets for decision-making Ability to exercise group result assembly The skill having positive-thinking on the subject of to create modify Perceptions though exchange, education and engagement. The enlargement course and changes that is never finish and self-initiated Greater than ever ones up self-image and overcoming shame Increasing ones skill in discreet accepted wisdom to sort out exact and wrong Decision flow (A) Offered Collected prior to the research for a purpose other than the proposed research, includes data (B) Singular Populations Minors, in prison individuals or institutionalized psychologically disabled person. (C) Exemption Criteria (1) Normal educational practices (2) Unknown educational tests, surveys, interviews, (3) Collection or study of existing data; (4) Public benefit or service and Program (6) Taste and food evaluation and acceptance studies. Expensive There is now talk of Ryanairs expansion into the American market, with rumours that on this venture they will have two classes of travelers on the same plane the very economy section which could sell for expensive and customer focused. This would require different types of customer care and also moving away from its core business model of cost saving for all customers. Boundaries of empowerment If RYANAIR employee empowerment is such a great tool and strategy for bring about works, customers service, and employee motivation. RYANAIR organizational boundaries are also factors related to EE and high performing teams. Boundaries help newly empowered employees understand what their new, empowered roles are. Collective bargaining agent Given bellow the collective bargaining agent advantages and disadvantages. Advantages of Collective Bargaining Collective Bargaining is elastic and RYANAIR and not fixed or still: It has flexibility and ample range for finding the middle ground, for a mutual give and take sooner than the final accord is Reached or arrived at Collective bargaining RYANAIR is not a completive course of action but is for all intents and purposes a complementary course of action: Each social gathering wants a bit that the other party has that is to say, labor can make a greater creative try and executive has the capacity to disburse for those efforts and to put in order and guide. In good health preparation: The agreements that move toward from united bargaining are for set moment in time periods, be able to let organization to sketch for the prospect based on those agreements. Disadvantages of Collective Bargaining When unions and companies be of the same opinion on pay add to, it might cause rise in fee; then the client will have to shoulder the full weigh down of their agreement. Wage go with the flow leads to higher wage costs for employers and top price increases in the financial system, which in go round leads to top notice rates and minor investment. Task-3 Communication barriers Many people think that communicating is easy. A communication barrier is very important of any business. Given bellow the communication barriers. Physical barriers Physical barriers in the place of work include: striking out territory, empire and fiefdoms into which strangers are not acceptable closed office doors, separate areas for group of diverse status Large running areas or effective in one unit that is in the flesh separate on or after others. Research shows that one of the most key factors in house cohesive teams is closeness. As long as natives still have an own space that they be capable of call their own, closeness to others aids communication because it helps us get to know one a different. Perceptual barriers The problem with cabin crew communicating with others is with the intention of we all see the globe differently. If we didnt, we would have no need to exchange a few words: something like extrasensory acuity would seize its place. Interpersonal barriers There are six levels at which people can distance them from one an additional Taking out RYANIR cabin crew taking out is a lack of interpersonal makes contact with. It is both refusals to be in lay a hand on and time without help. Rituals RYANIR cabin crew is empty, repetitive routines devoid of valid get in touch with. Pastimes fill up time with others in social but on the surface behavior. Working activities are persons tasks which go after the rules and trial of get in touch with but no more. Games are subtle, scheming interactions which are on the subject of winning and losing. Its difference other country system. Contact is the aim of RYANIR cabin crew interpersonal make contact with where there is a far above the ground level of honesty and acceptance of yourself and others. Working on improving communications with RYANIR is a broad-brush activity. RYANIR have to change their thoughts, these feelings, and RYANIR physical connections. That way, RYANIR can break downward the barriers that get in this way and start construction relationships that really work. Differing emotional states RYANIR have two system message example exclusive and normal systems. Every message contains both a content connotation, which deals in the company of the subject matter of the message, and a bond import, which suggests the nature of the interaction sandwiched between sender and receiver. Communication can break down when the recipient reacts negatively to either of these meanings. RYANIR may have to contract with people when they are offended. An sadden human being tends to do not take into account or distort what the other person is saw and is often powerless to in attendance feelings and ideas in tip of fact. Poor listening People are for all intents and purposes likely to drift off when they are strained to listen to in sequence that is difficult to be aware of or that has little direct air on their own lives. To boot few of us just do not pay attention fine. Differing backgrounds Differences in background can be one of the hardest statement barriers to rise on top of. Age, instruction, sex, public status, trade and industry position, cultural set, nature, physical condition, good looks, fame, religious conviction, taking sides belief, even a passing mood can all break up one human being from an additional and make kind easier said than done. To triumph over the barriers linked with opposed backgrounds, avoid visionary your own milieu or mores on top of others. Shed radiance on your own and be aware of the background of others, spheres of data, personalities and perceptions and dont take for granted that certain behaviors mean the same thing to all and sundry. Task-4 The most famous distinction of labour flexibility is given by Atkinson. Based on the strategies companies use, he notes that there can be four types of plasticity. Functional flexibility RYANIR has to do in the midst of organization of function or management and training workers. The ability to reassign employees to poles apart everyday jobs within the organization, either in response to short-term production flows or long-term adjustment to technological adjust, has impotent effects on managerial mixing. RYANIR employees cannot transfer to special activities and task surrounded by the firm. The low functional flexibility nations (U.S.A, U.K, and Singapore) and the high functional flexibility nations (Sweden, Germany, Japan) reach those varying result through basically different HRMS policies. It has to do with organization of act or management and division workers. This can be achieved by outsourcing activities. External numerical flexibility RYANIR external numerical flexibility is refers to the change of the labour intake, or the add up to of human resources forms the external market. As a result is reduction international competitiveness and for that reason, employment levels. High workers competence levels tend to drive a low ENF line of attack in order to protect nest egg in training, as in Germany and Japan. High functional flexibility means that firms have the ability to reallocate workers within and without the organization as a viable option to layoffs. This can be achieved by employing human resources on short-term work or fixed-term contracts or through comfortable hiring and the boot regulations or in other words recreation according to the firms wants. Internal numerical flexibility Internal numerical flexibility, RYANIR know sometimes as work time flexibility or lay flexibility. This flexibility is achieved by adjusting operational hours or schedules of human resources by now employed within the firm. RYANIR a number of rewards and staffing policies come into sight to affect the ability of firms from corner to corner nations to adjust working hours and the total number of hours on hand over the work year, the availability of overtime, particularly, the distance end to end of the schedule work week, the ability to trim down work weeks, and the amount of paid time. Financial or wage flexibility The model of RYANAIR cabin crew incorporates the verity that individuals may have large flexibility in not to be trusted their work effort. RYANAIR wage level is not decided as a group and in attendance are more differences between the wages of human resources. The labor effort is an optimal financial investment strategy at each point in RYANAIR life cycle. This is made so that pay and other employment price tag reflect the make available and insist of labour. This can be achieved as a result of rate-for-the-job organism, or evaluation based pay system, or human being performance wages. This can also cover up workers who are relocated to extra offices within the firm. Task-5 A defining and classifying come within reach of such as those of by means of Rodgers seven headings- offer a way of not compulsory the selection criterion. It seems cogent and an open auditable come within reach of as well. It would make available records needed if an important person was to inspect the justice and application how well the route of recruitment and choice has been conduct so the come up to may satisfy a quality audit. Given bellow the Rodger seven point plan. Physical make-up Health: A cabin crew must a good health. He should not attend on job with any kind of sickness. Physique: A cabin crew should have a good body structure. He cannot be so fat or so slim. Appearance: Cabin crew must keep up their time schedule properly. They are supposed to attend at RYANAIRS office at fixed time. Bearing: Every passengers of an airbus want a polite person to serve up them. So a cabin crew of RYANAIR must have a good behavior with everyone. Attainment Education: A cabin crew must complete minimum higher secondary level or A level. If considered necessary the qualification may add to. Training: To give a better service to the passengers a cabin crew must have to take training as it should be. It is so tuff to offer good services without training for cabin crew. Experience: experience may necessary for a better service for the passengers. One or two years experience possibly will enough for a cabin crew. Achievements: Goodwill is the best achievements for a cabin crew before take on a cabin crew we should be acquainted with about his achievement in all sec Intelligence Cognitive ability: A cabin crew must cognitive ability. Learning capacity: All cabins should have learning capacity. Because he has not learning capacity then he cannot grab hold of additional topics. Analytical ability: A cabin crew relevant analytics capabilities are often interwoven into applications for sales, marketing, and service. Special aptitudes If a person has a good knowledge on construction, equipment, dexterity, mathematical, IT ability they should recruit. Interests To be a good cabin crew a person must have to be active and social. If he an intellectual and practical people he should get the priority to get the chance to serve the passenger of RYANAIR. Disposition A cabin crew must enough maturity and personality to be good and good service for passenger. Circumstances A cabin crew must physical and mentally fit and all set to go to anywhere of the world withRYANAIR. Task-6 Lack of job security Some of the people do job of the RYANIR a small number of jobs or yet one job in their life. If so, and theyre not effective for the rule, theyre likely to be older than 50, having adult up at a time where company devotion and hard employment provided a steady vocation and a at ease pension. They might have spent 20 or 30 years with the same company, never making the break to search for a little better, and on no account having a reason to fear layoffs. Its important to realize that not everyone react the same way to job lack of confidence. Economics provides the main reason at the back migration. Functional turnover RYANAIR employee turnover is well thought-out by many business leaders to be a simple matter of keeping the information down. Determine relationships of turnover with the employee and the agency. Push factors RYANAIR push factor come in a lot of forms. Sometimes these factors go away natives with no pick but to go away their country of starting point. RYANAIR Other push factors include ancient conditions, poor health check care, normal disasters, political fear and as well as slavery. Natural disasters and ecological evils over and over again cause the loss of money, homes, and jobs. RYANIAR instead go to the United States, where their skills and their lower wage demands are sought after by high-teach companies. Environmental problems and likely disasters often cause the defeat of money, homes, and jobs. Pull factors RYANAIR Pull factors generally make a decision where these travelers end up. People sad to more develop countries will over and over again find that the same work they be doing at home is content out of the country with higher take-home pay. RYANAIR find a greater security net of welfare benefits be supposed to they be unable to work. RYANAIR pull factor given bellow three examples: Higher standards of living/Higher wages, Labor Demand, and Political and Religious Freedom. People stirring to more urban countries will over and over again find that the alike work they were doing at home is content abroad with higher wages. Other pull factors include more medical care or education, family links or simply a personal fondness of a certain place, whether it may be linked to mores, verbal communication, weather situation or other influencing factors.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Civil Liberties Essay -- Government Politics USA Essays

Civil Liberties After September 11, 2001, in the United States of America, many aspects of our daily lives have changed. One notable change has been the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. Many bills are being drafted to ensure the safety of the United States. We, as Americans, are going to have to sacrifice many of our civil liberties due to this tragic event. There are many good reasons why these bills are being drafted, but there are also negative effects such as the loss of civil rights. One particular bill being drafted is the USA PATRIOT Act. The USA PATRIOT Act puts the CIA back in the business of spying on Americans. It permits a vast array of information gathering on U.S. citizens from financial transactions, school records, Internet activity, telephone conversations, information gleaned from grand jury proceedings and criminal investigations to be shared with the CIA (and other non-law enforcement officials) even if it pertains to Americans. Most importantly, the information w ould be shared without a court order. While there is a need to shut down the financial resources used to further acts of terrorism, this legislation goes beyond its stated goal of combating international terrorism and instead reaches into innocent customers’ personal financial transactions. If the USA PATRIOT Act becomes a law, financial institutions would monitor daily financial transactions even more closely and be required to share information with other federal agencies, including foreign intelligence agencies such as the CIA. Section 358 requires that, in addition to law enforcement, intelligence agencies would also receive suspicious activity reports. These reports are usually about wholly domestic transactions of people in the United States, and do not relate to foreign intelligence information. In addition, Section 358 would allow law enforcement and intelligence agencies to get easy access to individual credit reports in secret. There would be no judicial review and no notice to the person to whom the rec ords relate. Through these provisions, the CIA would be put back in the business of spying on Americans, and law enforcement and intelligence agencies would have a range of personal financial information without ever showing good cause as to why such information is relevant to a particular investigation. Since September 11, Federal, state, and... ... at odds. Law enforcement authorities already have great leeway under current law to investigate suspects in terrorist attacks – including broad authority to monitor telephone and Internet communications. In fact, under current law, judges have rejected only three federal or state criminal wiretap requests in the last decade.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å"This is a country that understands that people have fundamental God-given rights and liberties and our government is constituted to protect those rights. We cannot – in our efforts to bring justice – diminish those liberties,† said Sen. George Allen, R-Va., in a statement responding to the terrorist attacks. â€Å"Clearly this is not a simple, normal criminal case. This is an act of war, and those rules of warfare may apply. But here at home and domestically, we need to make sure that we’re not tempted to abrogate any civil rights such as habeas corpus, protections against unreasonable searches and seizures, the freedom of expression and peaceable assembly, or freedom of religion.† Sources Cited: 1., The American Civil Liberties Union, 2001 2., CorpWatch, 2001 3., MSNBC Terms and Conditions, 2001