Thursday, September 3, 2020
ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s practices and responses have consistently been so fascinating to me. Considering Erikson, Piaget, and KohlbergÃ¢â¬â¢s various hypotheses on human improvement has given me an a lot further comprehension of these practices. In spite of the fact that their hypotheses are extraordinary, they do share three suppositions as indicated by an article on SparkNotes.com: 1. Individuals go through stages in a particular request, with each stage expanding on limits created in the past stage. 2. Stages are identified with age. 3. Advancement is spasmodic, with subjectively various limits rising in each stageÃ¢â¬ (Psychology/Development, 2012, p. 1). While considering these three scholars it has influenced my own concept of human advancement in two different ways. Also, my perspective on how a patient has been raised has influenced my nursing care. I concede that when I care for a youngster, a dominant part of the time I quietly censure the guardians for the ill-advised activ ities of the kid. It is simple for me to swear off teaching a pre-adult patient. I regularly state to myself, it isn't the childÃ¢â¬â¢s issue and reason them for their practices, essentially in light of the fact that I accepted that is the way they were raised and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know better. In the wake of finding out about Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis on advancement, I understood that a childÃ¢â¬â¢s improvement isn't exclusively reliant on the manner in which the youngster was raised by their folks. There are other contributing components being developed, as indicated by an article that analyzes EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s sees versus FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s titles Erik Erikson. McLeod (2013) states that Erikson, Ã¢â¬Å"emphasized the job of culture and societyÃ¢â¬ , (p. 1) in the advancement of character. In the wake of examining Erikson it has changed my comprehension of why youngsters carry on and respond in specific circumstances. In McLeodÃ¢â¬â¢s (2013) article it likewise makes reference to... ...n Simply Psychology, Ã¢â¬Å"children at this age like to investigate their general surroundings and they are continually finding out about their environmentÃ¢â¬ (McLeod, 2013, figure 2). Everything hazardous was kept in bolted drawers and bureau, so I figured the youngster would be sheltered wandering around the little test room. Additionally, the episode including the childÃ¢â¬â¢s eye was damaging to him and after the stitches are set it would cause significantly more injury. I disclosed to the guardians that so as to impart independence into this youngster, they should permit the kid to investigate to beat any feelings of dread that might be brought upon from this horrendous mishap. That is only one case of how I used EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s hypotheses into my nursing practice. I will keep on bringing it into my arrangement of care, since I currently have a comprehension of why kids respond and carry on with a specific goal in mind towards various circumstances.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
In that capacity and in any case our investigation, It is prescribed that we have to initially return to a portion of the remarkable and essential diagram of delivery before we proceed onward to having point by point audit and investigation of transportation money In ensuing modules In perspective on the realities that: the outline to be experienced In this module Is firmly identified with and explicitly connected with delivery fund, and most Importantly, substance of this module are progressing to be referenced and rethought again In resulting modules concerning slanting account For our examination, this module Intends to cover the accompanying significant themes and zones:- A.The four delivery markets, B. The ocean transport framework (or the financial model of ocean transports C. The delivery advertise cycle, D. Boat enlistment, E. One-transport organization and Mare directive, F. Sea lien, G. Merger and obtaining in the transportation business, and H. Boat speculation methodology and standards. As a beginning of this module, it is generally noticed that the focal job of transportation offers ocean rainspout to encourage worldwide exchange and advance financial development.In expansion, the delivery business is an essential piece of the universal exchanging framework and its center capacity is to encourage global exchange through interfacing the wellsprings of flexibly and interest for products. In reality, transportation, exchange and monetary improvement all go inseparably: it is assessed that over 95% of universal exchange terms of volume is helped out through delivery, and over the previous decades, dispatching has formed into a prominent industry which has become a riving power for the formation of riches on the planet and prosperity of the people.Module 1 Ã¢â¬ Overview of Shipping and Shipping Finance Page 2 Shipping Is basic to the working of the worldwide economy and Its reliance after moving merchandise from creation to utilization destinations. Cr ude materials and completed products have been the shopping center cargoes in worldwide exchange. In later decades, exchange Intermediate merchandise for additional handling has developed steeply and In corresponding with the supposed discontinuity of creation forms. Fracture Implies that the creation break Is part Into a few topographically various areas with the goal that every segment Is delivered where the creation costs are most favorable.Trade In these segments establishes a significant portion of seaborne exchange. World seaborne exchange ascends with financial development. The improvement of world total national output (GAP) and the seaborne freight streams show this. Discontinuity and specialization further increment the volume exchanged comparative with the creation volume. Besides, transporting with the world economy, investigating and misusing the recurring pattern of exchange. Today, it as become a closely knit worldwide business network, based on interchanges and free trade.Henceforth, when contemplating delivery and its significant subjects (dispatching fund is one of the most significant subjects of transportation), one must remember that there is a nearby connection between transportation, universal exchange and monetary advancement since the interest for ocean transport is very much determined by global exchange and financial turn of events (provincial or worldwide) Ã¢â¬ in light of which the here and there of the transportation business is all things considered in accordance with the development of worldwide read and improvement of worldwide economies.Diagrams 1 and 2 underneath shows the connection between world GAP cycles, volume of the ocean exchange COED modern creation, and the most significant effect on interest for ocean transport is to a great extent the world economy (which likewise drives universal exchange): A.The Four Shipping Markets The universal transportation industry can be separated into and ocean transport administrations are given by four firmly related transportation showcases, each exchanging an alternate item: the cargo advertise exchanges ocean transport, where the boat proprietor contracts he sends and finishes up cargo understandings, the deal and buy showcase exchanges recycled ships, where the boat proprietor exchanges (purchases or sells) the boats, the unbinding market exchanges unbinding and new ships, where the boat proprietor arranges the unbinding of the boats from the shipyard, and the destruction advertise bargains in ships for rejecting, where the boat proprietor at last sells the boats for scrapping.International exchange and monetary improvement Demand and flexibly of delivery Demand and gracefully of transportation money The four transportation markets Shipping market cycles Shipping speculation methodology and rules cargo advertise deal and buy advertise unbinding market destruction advertise Demand and flexibly of ocean transport Module 1 Ã¢â¬ Overview of Shipping and Shippin g Finance Page 5 These four markets are by one way or another connected with income and push the market merchants toward the path they like and need. What's more, in light of the fact that a similar boat proprietor might be exchanging each of the four markets, their exercises and the relationship with income are firmly corresponded and can be summed up in Diagram 4:
Friday, August 21, 2020
Nursing Issues in social insurance - Essay Example Patricia has served different positions of authority at Scripps Health, Presbyterian Intercommunity and Southwest Healthcare. Notwithstanding authority aptitudes, she has a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s certificate in nursing and a masterÃ¢â¬â¢s in nursing initiative. As a pioneer, Patricia is accused of ensuring that the medical clinic meets its patient consideration, clinical and staffing gauges. She likewise exhorts senior administration on the best nursing practices and patient consideration. She is additionally answerable for overseeing nursing financial plans, setting up nursing arrangements and strategies. Patricia likewise designs quiet administrations and takes an interest in cross-departmental dynamic with other top supervisors. Likewise, Patricia is liable for all the nursing divisions in the emergency clinic. The conversation with respect to generational contemplations in nursing was extremely useful on the grounds that the pioneer gave a great deal of light and data on the issue. As of late, much consideration has concentrated on the generational associates that characterize the present society. The generational gatherings incorporate the veterans, people born after WW2, age x, age Y and the home landers (Stanley, 2010). The gatherings have contrast characterizing qualities and posture various difficulties for nurture pioneers. In that capacity, it is significant for nurture pioneers to have consciousness of the generational contrasts and the going with shifting correspondence styles for the various gatherings. Understanding the gatherings has suggestion in nursing from two viewpoints. Initially, it encourages correspondence between the medical caretaker and the patients or families. Also, it upgrades correspondence among medical caretakers and other wellbeing proficient cooperating. The conventionalists are an old age with individuals who observe the standards, esteem authority and hierarchy of leadership. They are probably going to react to formal correspondence than easygoing or an immediate methodology. The gen X-ers developed in a period of success that framed the reason for their
Sunday, June 7, 2020
There are many different mental disorders that are outlined within the book of importance to mental health clinicians, including PTSD. How individuals feel, think, and behave are what help drive different perspectives to derive. From researching combat veterans suffering from PTSD, I found similarities and differences between the different psychological perspectives that was focused upon. When comparing and contrasting the behavioral and cognition perspectives in terms of evaluating PTSD among combat veterans, they are more similar, while on the other hand, comparing the biological perspective to the other perspective there were hardly any similarities but more differences. Between the psychological perspectives of cognition and behavior, I found the similarity that both used therapy as a treatment component and not a medicinal approach. I think that this is important because instead of turning to medications to fix the problem, using exposure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy, both help to work through the issue rather than pushing it aside and taking a pill. Also, therapy was found to be more effective than the medicinal approach and I think this is due to the fact that with medications, the efficacy and confidence was expressed in a negative manner due to the fact that side effects of a medication can occur and dependence upon it can accumulate. When looking at the biological approach and trying to connect it to the cognitive approach and behavioral approach, it is not easy to do so. The biological approach focuses its attention on the endocrine system of the human body, expressing that the problem originates from out of balance hormone levels, when the cognitive approach focuses on thoughts within the find and the behavioral approach focusing on the actions elicited from the combat veteran. When getting an education, it is learned that biological factors focus on genetics and hormones, which holds true here. On the other hand, the cognitive approach concentrates on the negative thoughts and acting upon them to realize they are just thoughts and dont need to be drawn out into actions. The cognitive perspective focuses more so on the psychological aspect, whereas the biological perspective focused more so on the physiological aspect. I found no perspective better than another one, but rather found that different perspectives add more knowledge to understand the topic as a whole. There are different ways human thoughts and behaviors are elicited. New treatments and etiology may develop from the different types of psychological perspectives if research is continued onward regarding a topic with not much data like this one. The older name of posttraumatic stress disorder, shell shock, represents this type pertaining to combat veterans because it places a shell around them, to hide in, and not want to get help in. With the advancements in technology that continue each and every day, the research that is continued onward with this topic, and the more awareness that accumulates regarding PTSD among combat veterans, treatment for these victims is essential.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
SPM ESSAYS Ã¢â¬â EXTRA! EXAMPLE 1 Reading has many benefits. What are they? Introduction Most of us have been exposed to reading since we were young but not many of us have the habit of reading for leisure. - read only because they have to study for their examinations but reading is not only limited to study materials - fun to read storybooks, novels, magazines, comics, newspapers and any other reading material that is of interest to us Main body a) Reading enhances our general knowledge. - learn about various and cultures in other parts of the world - take us on a journey to these countries without traveling - open our eyes to the world around us and teach us about the lives of other people in other countries - also have the opportunity toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦There is a powerful connection between the body and mind. A strong and healthy body needs a strong mind in order to make it most useful. As the saying goes, A sound mind is lodged in a sound body. It is for this reason that great stress is put on physical exercise as well as mental training. Physical exercise is vital develop a healthy body. Finally, to maintain good health, we should also stay away from unhealthy habits such as smoking and drinking. Heavy drinking and smoking bring upon illnesses and 2 shorten our lives. We must remember that is easier to fall sick than to recover, as illustrated by the saying, Sickness comes on horseback and goes away on foot. So lead a healthy lifestyle to avoid falling ill constantly. It is usual that we seldom miss something till we have lost it. Having said this, be aware that good health is an asset that we should never wait to lose before we start appreciating it. EXAMPLE 3 Tourism is good for our country. What do you think? Tourism consists of activities of people visiting a place on holiday and providing the services to these people. All countries of the world from the developed to the underdeveloped, from the first world to the third world have jumped on the bandwagon to earn at many tourist dollars as possible. Tourism is a big money spinner, from the safari parks in Africa to the ancient historical sites in China. However, to someShow MoreRelatedTeaching Effective Reading Instruction And Key Reading Skills1692 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThere are many benefits provided to students who are systemically and explicitly taught effective reading instruction and key reading skills, though children may not always have opportunities in order to benefit to the full extent. The main approach to teaching effective reading instruction can be broken down into two definitions; Ã¢â¬Å"Systematic instruction reflects several important characteristics. Skills and concepts are taught in a planned, logically progressive sequenceÃ¢â¬ (A Closer Look at the FiveRead MoreThe Importance Of Reading For Children At An Early Age1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesReading was never important to me until high school came around, that is when I realized school work would have been easier if I had read more often as a child. My mother never pushed me to read, though I wish she would have. Even though I preferred watching T.V., reading would have been more beneficial for me in the long run. StatisticÃ¢â¬â¢s showing literacy rates among fourth graders taken from the National Assessment of Education Progress says, Ã¢â¬Å"The literacy rates among fourth grade students in AmericaRead MoreThe Benefits Of Reading Out Loud858 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Benefits of Reading Out Loud to Your Children Being read to out loud as a child is something I remember very well. However, I would have never thought that being read to was not only fun but very beneficiary as well. Being read to out loud is a memory many parents have from their childhood and is one passed on to their children as well. This is something every child should get to experience in their lifetime, it helps prepare them for school, strengthens their ability to bond, and helps childrenRead MoreResearch Based Benefits Of Play Essay941 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1) Evidence for 3+ research-based benefits of play There are many benefits of play for young children physically, emotionally, and academically. In an article on play, Wheatley (2011), found research that stated children in more play-oriented classroom were just as successful at problem solving skills as those in traditional classrooms from Smith and Simon (1984) (located in Zigler, Singer, Bishop-Josef, 2004, p. 70). These children in play-oriented classrooms also had more problem solving ideasRead MoreVolunteering At The Sacramento Public Library1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBeecher. This quote has proven to be true as I volunteered at the Sacramento Public library. Volunteering at the Sacramento Public Library led me to various work experience, and I see it as one of the most important necessities of life, especially for education. At the library, I learned to work around for my social skills as I helped others when in need, I learned to always be punctual, or sometimes early to be on time. Though, what I loved doing most in the lib rary was reading to little childrenRead MoreStudents Lack Of Comprehension And Motivation797 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmotivation. Many students read at grade level or below grade level in urban schools. They are not motivated internally or by external factors to be more involved with school or to read. Adolescent students are at an age where peer influence has a significant affect on them. If students do not see or hear about one another reading, the chances of them reading are lower. However, when students do hear that their peers are reading a book and recommend it to one another this validates reading to the studentsRead MoreThe Effect Of Explicit And Systematic Approaches On Students Literacy Development1433 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconclusions that have come out of researching Ã¢â¬Å"Effective Reading InstructionÃ¢â¬ have shown significant benefits to students who are taught in an upfront, straight to the point manner. Within this essay it will be discussed the importance of an e ffective reading instruction along with its 5 elements. As well as the effects of explicit and systematic approaches on studentÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy development. The benefits of allowing children to choose their own reading literature and the findings of the research completedRead MoreThe Big Reason For Choosing Print Over Digital952 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconstantly being challenged to complete numerous assignments from various classes that are due on the same day. It is very typical for students to have to multi-task while working on homework assignments. When it comes to reading online, it causes a lot of distractions. Reading online or reading on a Kindle/tablet ereader makes it very easy to open a new tab that consists of either social media or another website which prolongs the study time more than it was intended. American University linguistics professorRead MoreThe Problem Of Lack Of Reading Habits1584 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesabovementioned statistics it is clearly seen that lack of reading habits is considered to be one of the biggest problems in the world nowadays. The main objective of this essay is to provide possible solutions to solve the problem: firstly, show to people famous and influential role examples who prefer to read, remind people about the positive consequences of reading and lastly, open a reading clubs. The problem of lack of reading habits originates from the beginning of the 21st century. TheRead MoreHow Has Your Thinking On Immigration Changed From The Beginning Of The Semester?901 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHow has your thinking on immigration changed from the beginning of the semester? My thoughts on immigration changed a lot because I think that IÃ¢â¬â¢m more able to analyze countries policies and especially the U.S policies toward Immigration. I used to think a country restrictive toward immigration was mostly linked to conservatism reasons but the liberal paradox mentioned in the first reading by Hollifield Ã¢â¬Å"The Emerging migration stateÃ¢â¬ made me understand that they were more behind immigration restrictions
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Each year in the U.S. almost one million teenagers become pregnant--at enormous costs to themselves, their children, and societyÃ¢â¬ . (Pregnant Teen Help, Teen Pregnancy Statistics) Some would argue that teen pregnancy is all glorified. Other individuals would protest that it is too influential. Teen pregnancy is a rising social problem in the United States and among other countries. Teen pregnancy is now being publicized as multi media corporations, with shows such as Ã¢â¬Å"16 ump; PregnantÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Teen MomÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"MauryÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Secret Life of the American TeenagerÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"JunoÃ¢â¬ . All of which concentrate on teen pregnancy. These shows or movies could be informational for young people. However, the shows display an altered reality that teen pregnancy is easy,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Help is here. Help and support is everywhere, you just need to know where to look. The organization Ã¢â¬Å"The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned PregnancyÃ¢â¬ is a great place to start. There website has short video clips, statistics and a place to feel welcome. Their mission is to seek and improve the well being of the children, the young mother and the families. The National Campaign feels that it is important because teen pregnancy and also unplanned pregnancy for that matter among young adults is part of the root of the problems to important public issues, and ultimately social challenges. Their part and role in this problem is to work in the areas that need the most help. For example: to strengthen the cultures assumptions of personal responsibilities regarding sex, getting pregnant and most importantly bring a child into this world. They also support the use of contraceptionÃ¢â¬â¢s and provide the proper information of the different techniques. (National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, About Us) Ultimately the National Campaign provides more and better education to the teens that this a ffects such as the parents, the young adults; everyone, and anyone who could be affected by this social problem. Another suggestion besides The National Campaign is Ã¢â¬Å"Advocates for YouthÃ¢â¬ . They are an organization that is publically funded. Like the National Campaign their mission is to help young people make informed and responsible decisionsShow MoreRelatedTeen Pregnancy1426 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Teen pregnancy is often unplanned and challenging for the future life of mother and child. The increase risk of health problems for both mother and baby occur during teen pregnancy. Teen pregnancy impacts adolescent development in all aspects: physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development. Negative consequences result from teen pregnancy include: low income, increased school dropout rates, lower educational levels, and increased rates of substance abuse (Garwood, Gerassi, ReidRead MoreTeen Pregnancy1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDoes access to condoms prevent teen pregnancy? Adolescent pregnancies remain a concern in public health worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has indicated that annually about 16 million girls between 15 and 19 give birth. Indeed, in many countries policies and programs are developed and implemented for the prevention of teen pregnancy and reduction of risks and consequences it might cause. Furthermore, that a teenager becomes pregnant poses a risk to her health, her life and the fetusRead MoreTeen Pregnancy1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA topic in American society that has proved to be an ongoing, and growing issue is that none other than teen pregnancy. In recent years, teen pregnancy rates have been increasing, which ultimately led to the topics increase of public and media attention. In American society teen pregnancy is often associated with negligence, as well as being irresponsible. In American society sex education for children is underdeveloped and instead society tends to use fear and shame to highlight/combat the dangersRead MoreTeenage Pregnancy And Teen Pregnancy1546 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTeenage pregnancy is pregnancy in human females under the age of 20 at the time that the pregnancy ends. Low-income communities have the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the United States. Because of the fact that this is a very controversial issue in the United States, it is very important that most questions be addressed. Questions like, why is a teenage girl in Mississippi four times as likely to give birth as a teenage girl in New Hampshire? Or why is the teen birth rate in Massachusetts 19Read MoreTeen Pregnancy : Teenage Pregnancy1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLauryn Jones Block 5 4/27/16 What is Teen Pregnancy? Teenage pregnancy is pregnancy in human females under the age of 20. A girl can become pregnant from sexual intercourse after she has begun to ovulate which can be before her first menstrual period, but usually occurs after the onset of her periods. In well-nourished girls, menarche usually takes place around the age of 12 or 13. Most teenage girls don t plan to get pregnant, but many do. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the motherRead MoreTeenage Pregnancy And Teen Pregnancy1057 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTeenage pregnancy is a common thing here in America. It seems teens are getting pregnant more than the average married couple. There are some risk factors teen moms face and there is also another great turn outs. There is a major difference between the two. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to tell teens the turnouts of teen pregnancy for the good and bad parts. There are risks of having sex, teen moms can make a difference for her and the baby, the risk of having HIV and/or any other STDÃ¢â¬â¢s, and the effects on theRead MoreTeenage Pregnancy And Teen Pregnancy1341 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTeenage pregnancy is a prominent dilemma in our nation because it continues to place adolescents into delinquency. According to the United States Health and Human Services, three out of ten American teen girls will become pregnant at least once before they reach the age of twenty. That is nearly 750,000 teen pregnancies in a year (1) (HHS Pg.2 2014). Also according to U.S. Department of State, teen pregnancy budgets the United States and tax payers approximately seven billion dollars annually (2)Read MoreTeenage Pregnancy And Teen Pregnancy1664 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTerrazas English 4 Miss Stahlecker 4 November 2015 Teenage Pregnancy According to cda.org, in 2013, a total of 273,105 babies were born to women that were in between the ages of 15-19 years old. Teenage pregnancy is a major concern in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. This paper will talk about teenage pregnancy, statistics, ways to prevent teenage pregnancy, and after birth options. So why is teenage pregnancy so important? Some people are concerned about teens getting pregnant at such an early age. There are otherRead MoreEffects Of Teen Pregnancy On Teens1643 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEvery teen has dream about how they want to graduate from high school and then go to college, but some teens are not willing to take the challenge. Some of these teens want to drop out of high school and other teens want to keep furthering their education. For some there are obstacle that life throw at them to be able to accomplish their goals. Earning an education is challenging enough, but when there is a teen parent trying to finish their education it becomes more difficult than it would beRead MoreTeenage Pregnancy And Teen Pregnancy905 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"16 and PregnantÃ¢â¬ / Ã¢â¬Å"Teen MomÃ¢â¬ Promote or Discourage Teenage Pregnancy? (Agree/Promote) When it comes to the topic of do TV shows like Ã¢â¬Å"16 and PregnantÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Teen MomÃ¢â¬ promote or discourage teenage pregnancy, most of us will readily agree that it in fact does promote teenage pregnancy. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of how does this promote teenage pregnancy. Whereas some are convinced that it promotes teenage pregnancy through the fame some of the young couples have
Phytoremediation Essay Introduction:In recent years it has become clear that some environmental chemicals can cause risks to the developing embryo and fetus. Evaluating the developmental toxicity of environmental chemicals is now a prominent public health concern. The suspected association between TCE and congenital cardiac malformations warrants special attention because TCE is a common drinking water contaminant that is detected in water supplies throughout the U.S. and the world. There is a lot of concern about the clean up of toxic pollutants from the environment. Traditional methods for cleaning up contaminated sites such as dig and haul, pump and treat, soil venting, air sparging and others are generally harmful to habitats. Some methods strip the soil of vital nutrients and microorganisms, so nothing can grow on the site, even if it has been decontaminated. Typically these mechanical methods are also very expensive. Most of the remediation technologies that are currently in use are very expensive, r elatively inefficient and generate a lot of waste, to be disposed of. Cleaning up contamination:Phytoremediation is a novel, efficient, environmentally friendly, low-cost technology, which uses plants and trees to clean up soil and water contaminated with heavy metals and/or organic contaminants such as solvents, crude oil, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic compounds from contaminated environments. This technology is useful for soil and water remediation. Mechanisms:Phytoremediation uses one basic concept: the plant takes the pollutant through the roots. The pollutant can be stored in the plant (phytoextraction), volatized by the plant (phytovolatization), metabolized by the plant (phytodegradation), or any combination of the above. Phytoextraction is the uptake and storage of pollutants in the plants stem or leaves. Some plants, called hyperaccumulators, draw pollutants through the roots. After the pollutants accumulate in the stem and leaves the plants are harvested. Then plants can be either burned or sold. Even if the plants cannot be used, incineration and disposal of the plants is still cheaper than traditional remediation methods. As a comparison, it is estimated a site containing 5000 tons of contaminated soil will produce only 20-30 tons of ash (Black, 1995). This method is particularly useful when remediating metals. Some metals are also being recycled from the ash. Phytovolatization is the uptake and vaporization of polluta nts by a plant. This mechanism takes a solid or liquid contaminant and transforms it to an airborne vapor. The vapor can either be the pure pollutant, or the plant can metabolize the pollutant before it is vaporized, as in the case of mercury, lead and selenium (Boyajian and Carriera, 1997; Black, 1995; Wantanbe, 1997). Phytodegradation is plants metabolizing pollutants. After the contaminant has been drawn into the plant, it assimilates into plant tissue, where the plant then degrades the pollutant. This metabolization by plant-derived enzymes such as nitrosedictase, laccase, dehalogenase, and nitrilase assimilates into plant tissue, where the plant then degrades the pollutant. This metabolization by plant-derived enzymes such as nitroredictase, laccase, dehalogenase, and nitrilase, has yet to be fully documented, but has been demonstrated in field studies (Boyajian and Carriera, 1997). The daughter compounds can be either volatized or stored in the plant. If the daughter compounds are relatively benign, the plants can still be used in traditional applications. The most effective current phytoremediation sites in practice combine these three mechanisms to clean up a site. For example, poplar trees can accumulate, degrade and volatize the pollutants in the remediation of organics. Techniques: Phytoremediation is more than just planting and letting the foliage grow; the site must be engineered to prevent erosion and flooding and maximize pollutant uptake. There are 3 main planting techniques for phytoremediation. 1.Growing plants on the land, like crops. This technique is most useful when the contaminant is within the plant root zone, typically 3 6 feet (Ecological Engineering, 1997), or the tree root zone, typically 10-15 feet. 2.Growing plants in water (aquaculture). Water from deeper aquifers can be pumped out of the ground and circulated through a Ã¢â¬Å"reactorÃ¢â¬ of plants and then used in an application where it is returned to the earth (e.g. irrigation)3.Growing trees on the land and constructing wells through which tree roots can grow. This method can remediate deeper aquifers in-situ. The wells provide an artery for tree roots to grow toward the water and form a root system in the capillary fringe. Determining which plant to use:The majority of c urrent research in the phytoremediation field revolves around determining which plant works most efficiently in a given application. Not all plant species will metabolize, volatize, and/or accumulate pollutants in the same manner. The goal is to ascertain which plants are most effective at remediating a given pollutant. Research has yielded some general guidelines for groundwater phytoremediation plants. The plant must grow quickly and consume large quantities of water in a short time. A good plant would also be able to remediate more than one pollutant because pollution rarely occurs as a single compound. Poplars and cottonwoods are being studied extensively because they can used as much as 25 to 350 gallons of water per day, and they can remediate a wide variety of organic compounds, including LNAPLÃ¢â¬â¢s. Phytoremediation has been shown to work on metals and moderately hydrophobic compounds such as BTEX compounds, chlorinated solvents, ammunition wastes, and nitrogen compounds . Yellow poplars are generally favored by Environmental Scientists for use in phytoremediation at this time. They can grow up to 15 feet per year and absorb 25 gallons of water a day. They have an extensive root system, and are resistant to everything from gypsy moths to toxic wastes. Brave new world2 EssayEnvironment Essays